Thursday, October 13, 2011

Ask For Repetition

Today I'd like to talk about ways you can 1) ask someone to repeat something in a different way, and 2) checking that you have understood someone.

So, if I said to you, 'I'd like you to take this important document and transfer it to this file and then delete it from this hard drive,' you probably would feel confused, right?
What are some ways of saying, "Huh?"

Good answers! You've got the idea. One way is to say: 'I'm sorry. I didn't catch that.'

Here are some phrases. I'd like you to decide if they are 'asking for repetition' or 'checking that you've understood'. Put 'R' if it's asking for repetition, and put 'C' if it's checking for understanding.
1. I’m sorry. I didn’t catch that. ____
2. Can you go over that again? ____
3. So what you mean is ... ____
4. Would you mind saying that again? ____
5. In other words, you think … ____
6. What you’re getting at is … ____
7. Sorry, I didn’t follow that. ____
8. So your point is … ____

Excellent! Here are the answers. How did you do?
1. I’m sorry. I didn’t catch that. = R [means: ‘Please repeat’]
2. Can you go over that again? = R [means: ‘Please repeat’]
3. So what you mean is ... = C [means: ‘Am I right?’]
4. Would you mind saying that again? = R [means: ‘Please repeat’]
5. In other words, you think … = C [means: ‘Am I right?’]
6. What you’re getting at is … = C [means: ‘Am I right?’]
7. Sorry, I didn’t follow that. = R [means: ‘Please repeat’]
8. So your point is … = C [means: ‘Am I right?’]

Here are some other great expressions that you came up with:
* Just so we’re on the same page …
* Let me summarize …
* Let me check to make sure ….
* Let me double check …
* Can you help me understand better ….

Human Rights

Wednesday, September 28, 2011

Rosh Hashanah Cards – A Sweet Year

May you be inscribed for a sweet year.

May you be inscribed for a sweet year.
There is a long standing tradition, that prior to and during the Jewish new year period, Jews send one another Rosh Hashana cards.
The general theme of the card is to wish our friends, family and neighbors a healthy and happy new year.

Though it’s not certain exactly when or where this custom started, it’s origin is most likely related to the significance of the day.
Rosh Hashana celebrates the renewal of creation. It is a time for reflection and personal accounting.
It is a time when our fate for the coming year will be decided by the heavenly court above.
Confident in our belief that the coming year will be a good one, we wish all those we meet and know a year filled with blessing.
Throughout the years different themes have been featured on Jewish New Year cards. The greeting offered and
picture depicted may vary depending on when and where the Rosh Hashanna card was published.

Most popular amongst all Rosh Hashanah messages is the blessing for a sweet year.
Typically portrayed is a picture of an apple and honey, which is traditionally eaten at this holiday season.
It is our way of asking the Creator of the Universe that the coming year be a sweet one.

Tuesday, September 20, 2011

Rain, season :)

I made a chart of words for rain, or weather that involves rain. This space is small, so write this out as 1 line on your paper:
[-----drizzle, sprinkle (=a little=)shower-----rainstorm (=some rain=) rainfall------tropical rain storm, downpour (=a lot=) sleet, cyclone, deluge, storm-----]

We now know 3 ways to use "season" :
1) To describe the times of the year: There are 2 seasons in Indonesia.
2) To describe the duration of an activity: Cricket season is long in India.
3) As a verb, to describe how to improve your food: Many of you season your rice and meat with spices and herbs such as garlic, cumin, tumeric, salt and pepper.

Wednesday, September 7, 2011


Let's start with basics, then I'll add more.

1. Put punctuation at the end of each sentence.
He had breakfast late.

Did he like the breakfast?

exclamation (Don't use too much.)
It's hot in here!

Let's talk about commas now.

1. Use a comma in a date.
September 7, 2011
December 12, 2011

2. Use a comma in a personal title
Jon Hernandez, M.D. (medical doctor)
Linda Chen, Ph.D. (doctor of philosophy)

3. Use a comma to separate a city and state/country
Phoenix, Arizona
Albany, New York
Paris, France

4. Use a comma to join two independent clauses.

Now, what's an independent clause?

An independent clause has a subject and a verb, and can be a sentence by itself.

Let's look at two independent clauses.

English can be difficult, but it can help you get a better job.

Sentence: English can be difficult.
Sentence: It can help you get a better job.

Both sentences are good by themselves.

They're also good together. When we put them together, we separate them with a comma.

English can be difficult, but it can help you get a better job.

‎5. Use a comma after an introductory phrase, prepositional phrase, or dependent clause.

Now, if an independent clause can be by itself, what's a dependent clause?

Yo Crizz and Shosho got it. A dependent clause can't be by itself. It's not a complete thought.

Because it was so hot, we decided not to play tennis.

Which is the dependent clause and which is the independent clause?

"Because it was so hot" -- dependent clause. It's not a complete thought. It can't be a sentence by itself.

"We decided not to play tennis." -- independent clause. It's a complete thought. It can be a sentence by itself.

The punctuation rule says to put a comma between the dependent and independent clause.

Because it was so hot, we decided not to play tennis.

5. Use a comma after an introductory phrase, prepositional phrase, or dependent clause.
After lunch, we'll go to the meeting.
Basically, we need to lower costs.
For example, we should bring our lunches to work.
To succeed, it's important to work hard.
Because he likes pizza, he picked up a pizza on the way home.

6. Use a comma to separate words in a series.
We like fresh tomatoes, cabbage, and carrots.
He went to the movies, the park, and the library.

Now, here's a good question. Do we need the commas after "cabbage" and "park"?

Both are correct. We often use style manuals that tell us how to punctuate. Some want the comma, and some don't.

‎7. Use a comma between adjectives that are equal.
We'd like a cheap, strong suitcase.
He's an intelligent, happy child.

8. Use a comma with "however, therefore, nonetheless, also, otherwise, finally, instead, thus, of course, above all, for example, in other words, as a result, on the other hand, in conclusion, in addition."

Jon likes to work hard, HOWEVER, he also likes to relax.
ABOVE ALL, the company wants to save money.
IN OTHER WORDS, you're leaving the company.

Last rule --

9. Quotes -- Put commas and periods inside the quotations. Use quotes for direct speech; not indirect speech.

So, what's direct speech? What's indirect speech?

Direct speech (These are the exact words Jon said as he was saying them.) Jon said, "We can't leave until we finish."

Indirect speech (This is a summary of the words John said -- someone's interpretation of his words.)
Jon said that we couldn't leave until we finished.

We use quotes with direct speech -- the exact words someone says as they're saying them. We don't use quotes with indirect speech.

Periods and commas go inside of the quotes.

Tanya said, "Don't leave until I get there."

We have a choice here.

1. Carlos Hernandez, PhD
2. Carlos Hernandez, Ph.D.

Both are correct. I usually see the first one.

Basically (introductory phrase), we like healthy foods like spinach, tomatoes, and broccoli (words in a series).

We don't need a comma after "tomatoes." Both ways are correct.

Wednesday, August 31, 2011

Verb Constructions

Some people asked "what's shakin'?" It is an informal way of saying "what's going on?" or "What's new/up?" You can also say "What's happenin'/cookin'?" You drop the 'g' at the end because that's how most young people speak (they tend not to pronounce 'g' at the end of 'ing'.

Let's look at some verb constructions with two complements, that can be used with or without a preposition. For example:
"He gave the dog a bone" Vs "He gave a bone to the dog."
How does that sound?

First of all, many verbs accept two different complements after them (such as "He gave [the dog] [a bone]", where 'the dog' is a complement, and 'a bone' is a second complement). However, these complements are different. One is the recipient (the one who receives), one is the object (the actual thing that is given). Can you tell me, in the example I gave you, which one is:
the recipient: __________
the object: __________

 In "He gave the dog a bone", 'the dog' is the recipient, the one who receives. 'A bone' is the object that is given.
You have two choices to express two complements with verbs such as 'give', and both are correct:
1) Verb + recipient + object (he gave the dog a bone)
2) Verb + object + TO + recipient (he gave a bone to the dog)

Some verbs that work like 'give' and accept two complements are:
- award, bring, feed, give, grant, hand, leave, lend, offer, owe, pass, pay, promise, read, sell, send, show, teach, tell, throw, etc.

Complete the following with two complements of your choice:
1) "She offered ___________ ______________"
2) "She offered ___________ to ______________"

Now, there is a second category of verbs, such as 'order', which take a different preposition than 'to'. For instance:
1) "He ordered me a coffee" (structure 1, no preposition)
2) "He ordered a coffee ___ me". What is the preposition missing?

And the correct answer was..... FOR :) "He ordered a coffee for me."
Verbs such as 'offer' can also have two complements: a beneficiary (the one who benefits from something) and the object (the thing that they get).

Some verbs similar to 'offer' and used with the preposition 'for' are:
- buy, choose, cook, do, find, get, keep, make, paint, play, reserve, save, write, etc.

Let's practice! Complete the following with two complements of your choice:
1) I bought ___________ _____________
2) I bought ___________ for ____________

I think you now see the difference between the two types of verbs that take 'to' (give) and 'for' (order).

Friday, August 5, 2011

preposition "up"

 'up' can be used with different verbs:
- to get up
- to eat up
- to stay up
- to grow up

- to make up
- throw up

‎1) To get up:
It means 'to stand after lying down or being on your knees'. Typically, it is used as a synonym/correlate of 'wake up':
=> "When did you get up this morning?"

In informal spoken English, it can also mean 'to stand in order to party/have fun':
=> "Get up, stand up, come on put your hands up..." (lyrics from "Jump around", by House of Pain"

‎2) 'To eat up' means two things (at least): to eat something very fast, voraciously, in order not to let it go to waste:
=> "Eat up your vegetables, young man!"

In informal spoken English, it can also mean 'to believe something blindly - and to be a bit gullible':
=> "She told her boss that she was sick, and he totally ate it up" (he believed her story).

3) 'To stay up' means 'to remain awake when you're supposed to sleep, or when it's late':
=> "We stayed up till 3am playing video games last night, now I have the worst headache."

It can also mean 'to remain in an upright position, to remain standing':
=> "He tried to knock down the pins, but two of them stayed up" (when bowling)

‎4) 'To grow up' means to get older or wiser/more mature:
=> "What do you want to do when you grow up?" (when you're older)
=> "You find this funny? Come on girl, grow up!" (be more mature)

Beware: plants/trees grow (in size). If they grow up, you mean that they expand vertically (they don't become older or wiser;)

‎5) 'To make up' means at least two things:
- To compensate for something:
=> "He missed the last test, he will have to make up for it."
=> "Last night was so much fun! We made up for lost time!" (we compensated for all the time we didn't spend together)

- It also means 'to be reconciled, to be on friendly terms again':
=> "We were at odds for a long time, but we decided to make up." ('to bury the hatchet' is also a good synonym expression).

6) And finally, 'to throw up'... I think everyone knows about that one :) It happens when your stomach is not happy with you, and it's never pleasant.

However, this is a funny expression to make the action sound better:
"To pray the porcelain god" (porcelain god= the toilet). When you pray the porcelain god, you're on your knees in front of the toilet.
=> "I don't know what I ate yesterday, but I spent all night praying the porcelain god."

Thursday, August 4, 2011

Connecting Two Ideas


In Iraq, the temperature (subject) is (verb) 45 (object).

If we have two complete ideas, we can make one sentence, but we need to connect the ideas with a clause or a conjunction.

In Iraq, the temperature is 45.
This surprised me.


In Iraq, the temperature is 45, AND this surprised me. (connecting with a conjunction)
In Iraq, the temperature is 45, WHICH SURPRISED ME. (connecting with a clause)

Please correct this sentence.
1. I'm from Indonesia it will surprise you to know about Indonesian food.

There are many ways to say this:

1. I'm from Indonesia. It will surprise you to know about Indonesian food.
2. I'm from Indonesia, and it will surprise you to know about Indonesian food.
3. I'm from Indonesia, which has a lot of surprising foods.
4. I'm from Indonesia, a country with a lot of surprising foods.

1. Run-on sentences -- A complete idea is one sentence. You can connect two complete ideas by using a conjunction or a clause.
‎2. We want to be careful to put an "s" on plural nouns. Some phrases are always used with plural nouns -- a lot of, many, one of, different, etc.
3. Capitalization -- The first word of every sentence is capitalized. "I" is always capitalized, but "you" isn't (unfortunately). Our country is important, and we show this by capitalizing it. Our language is important, so we capitalize it.

Tuesday, July 26, 2011


Let's start to learn about prepositions.

"At" is used for specific times -- at 4:00 a.m., at noon

"On" is used for a street -- on Washington Street
"At" is used for street numbers -- at 1276 First Avenue

"In" is used for a city -- He lives in Indonesia.

‎"At" is also the preposition of location -- He's at work./She's at her parent's house.

Quick quiz -- Please fill in this HUGE sentence to review.

at, on, in

_______ midnight, we'll go to a party _______ Carlos' house. He lives _______ 1723 West Thomas Street _______ Buenos Aires.

At midnight -- Specific times take "at".

Please fill in.

His plane leaves _______ 7 p.m.
We want to have lunch _______ noon.

"At" is used for a more general location. Notice that I didn't say a general location. I said a "more general" location.
He's at work.

This is a large location -- Work can be a big place. How can I find him? I need a more specific location.

"In" is used for a more specific location.
He's at work. He's in the copy room. (Now I know more specifically where he is.)

General times take "in."

in the afternoon
in August
in 2010

Please fill in: (at, in)

_______ July, we had lunch every day _______ 1:00 p.m.

Let's add "on" -- talking about dates

On July 25, we'll start an exercise class.

"In" -- for general time
"at" -- for specific time
"on" -- for specific dates

at, on

The dinner will be _______ July 29 _______ 7:00 p.m. _____ his uncle's house.

It should be -- The dinner will be on July 29 ("on" a specific date) at 7:00 p.m. ("at" a specific time) at his uncle's house (location).

It's possible to say "in his uncle's house", but it's not as natural. If you use "in", you're saying "inside his uncle's house" rather than just giving a location.

Let's look at two sentences. Which is correct?

My Uncle's house
My Uncle Juan's house

My Uncle's house -- This isn't correct because we have no name. It should be -- My uncle's house . . .

My Uncle Juan's house -- This is correct because we have a name.

My professor said (no name; no capital letter)
We heard that Professor Thomas wants . . . (a name, so we need a capital letter)

Thursday, July 14, 2011

Some American Slang

We use it with friends, family, and in informal situations. It's fun in the right situation.

Let's learn some American slang.

The first one is "BFF". This has become popular in the last few years. It means "best friend forever."

Who's your BFF? As some of you know, mine is Vickie. We've been BFF's since we were fifteen years old.

Next - Two teenage boys are walking on the street. They see some people coming toward them, looking angry. One boy could say to the other, "Don't worry. I have your back." 

It means that he'll protect him. It has the feeling that he'll do whatever is necessary, even if he gets hurt himself.

Next -- "to dis someone". Have you ever heard this? It means "to be disrespectful to someone". If we look at "disrespectful" we can see "dis" as a prefix. The slang word is the prefix.

Has anyone ever dissed you?

The next slang expression is "to be hot." Have you ever heard it before? It means "to be very sexy and good looking."

Practice sentence: Who's the hottest person you know?

The next slang expression is used to describe something that's "really great; fantastic. It's "off the hook."

That party was off the hook.

What's the last thing you experienced that was off the hook?
Structure (Subject) was off the hook.

The last one means the opposite. It's "ridiculous." The dictionary meaning of "ridiculous" is "stupid." As a slang expression, "ridiculous" means the opposite. It means "fantastic" when you're using it as a slang expression.

Taylor Swift's singing voice is ridiculous.
His talent is ridiculous.

The word is "booty". It means "buttocks, butt, bottom." We have a lot of words for it as I'm sure you do in your native language.

This is the way it's used -- Beyonce has a nice booty

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

discourse markers

- Introducing: First and foremost, first of all, first(ly), second(ly), third(ly), etc.
- Adding info: What is more, moreover, in addition, additionally, etc.
- Finishing a sequence: Lastly, last but not least, finally, etc.

- Contrasting: on the one hand... on the other hand; whereas; while
- Balancing: similarly, in the same way, likewise

- Conceding: It is true that, of course, obviously, evidently...
- Counter-argument: however, nevertheless, nonetheless, still...

- Generalization: Generally speaking, Broadly speaking, On the whole, In general

Thursday, May 12, 2011

Can't Help But

The can't help but construction (with other forms of the verb, like cannot and could not) is a little illogical: it comes from two other constructions, can't help —ing (meaning “I can't keep myself from —ing”) and can't but (meaning “I can't do anything except”). So can't help but should mean “I can't keep myself from doing anything except,” which is a kind of double negative. Still, can't help but has been around for a long time (the OED traces it to 1894), and it's probably not going away, so it's not worth grousing about. I avoid it myself, preferring “can't help —ing,” but there are better things to worry about.

Wednesday, April 6, 2011

disinterested - uninterested

What is the difference between 'disinterested' and 'uninterested'? 'Disinterested' means that you lost interest (you were interested, but not anymore). 'Uninterested' means that you do not have an interest in something, and does not express you had an interest before.

Thursday, March 31, 2011


Throughout history, people have celebrated Spring as a time of renewal and rebirth. For example, Christians observe Easter to celebrate the death and rebirth of Christ.  However, they also follow some of the old customs of pagan (pre-Christian) Europe.          
   In ancient Europe, eggs symbolized new life and rabbits fertility (reproduction).  Eggs and bunnies (baby rabbits)continue to play an important role in Western non-religious Easter celebrations.  American children often color hard-boiled eggs for Easter, a custom that probably arrived with German and Dutch immigrants.  

Monday, February 14, 2011

The History of Valentine's Day

St. Valentine's Day is celebrated on 14th February every year, and in Ireland we have a special reason to be particularly fond of this Saint as his remains are in Whitefriar Street Church in Dublin, a gift from the nineteenth century pope, Gregory XVI. Every year special Masses are held on 14th February in the church for engaged couples. 

Although St. Valentine is associated with love, romance and the giving of gifts and cards, little is known of the original St. Valentine – in fact there were several Valentines associated with 14th February in the early history of the Church. The first associations of St. Valentine with a day celebrating romance and love are attributed to Geoffrey Chaucer of The Canterbury Tales in the 14th century.

Initially lovers used to exchange hand-written notes, letters and poems expressing their feelings. However, in the 19th century , the arrival of a postal system increased the popularity of sending loveletters, particularly anonymously, and the next development was of pre-printed cards . These were often decorated with real lace and ribbons although this was replaced with paper lace in the mid-nineteenth century. 

Nowadays, Valentine’s Day is an established day for lovers to remember each other and give each other cards and gifts, from traditional flowers and chocolates to something altogether more personal and quirky. It is also a day for candlelight dinners and other romantic dalliances for couples, and woe betide any boyfriend or husband who accidentally ‘forgets‘to show his girlfriend or wife how special she is! It is estimated men spend twice as much as women on their Valentine’s Day gifts... 

For any singles without any romantic entanglements to celebrate, it’s definitely a day for keeping the head down – who wants to be asked did they get a Valentine and have to say ‘no’?! But it is also a day for celebrating that secret crush by sending an anonymous card or gift or even asking that special someone out on a date. 

Saturday, February 5, 2011

"What" AND "Which"

Both "what" and "which" are relative and interrogative pronouns. Sometimes they are very close in meaning, eg you could say "What colour/ which colour do you like best?"

Usually, though, "what" in a question suggests unlimited possibilities, eg "What do you like doing?" - the answer could be almost anything. "Which do you like?" on the other hand, shows a definite, limited list of alternatives (basketball or tennis, say.)

As relative pronouns, they are quite different. "What" again means unlimited possibilities: "She asked what my name was," " I don't know what to do." "Which" is specific: "I live in the countryside, which is very pleasant," or "I don't know which jacket to buy."

"What" is used in a range of expressions, all giving this idea of "no limits:" "What about...?" "What if..?" or used as a substitute for any other word: "I saw whatshisname this morning" or "I bought a whatyoucallit."

Sunday, January 9, 2011

Baking A Cake

M: Hello ,Everyone.Welcome to Englishpod.My name is Macro.
C: My name is Catherine.and today englishpod is in the kitchen.
M:That's right. Today we are going to hit the kitchen and we gonna bake a cake.
C: All right.So check out this dialogue first. When we come back, we will be talking about some very key phrases and words for cooking in English. 
M: All right, we are back.Now let's take a look at the some of the key words on language takeaway.
Language Takeaway
C:  First of all, we have special thing to keep our clothes clean while we are cooking.
What is these thing called, Marco?
M: This is called an apron
C :  It is not actually a shirt. It is a piece of fabric that may be you tie around your wrist or around your neck to protect your clothes from flour , butter and oil.
M:  That's right.It is very common to wear an apron while you are cooking or may be while you are cleaning the house of the kitchen in order to avoid getting dirty like you said.And we gonna start baking our cake. For the first thing that we do is we turn on the an oven in order to have at desired temperature.
C: This is something you might see in a recipe said that desired temperature is 450 degrees. So that means the temperature you want to achieve. May be when you turn the oven on, it is only 100 degrees.So you have to wait for the desired temperature which is what it is indicated in the recipe.
M: That's right. So this is what we want .We want desired temperature of 375 degrees.So now we got that done. Now we gonna make the butter.
C: The butter is the liquid. It is a cake. Before a cake become the cake.It's usually like very thick liquid. It is like a liquid, almost buttery milky substances. After you cooked it, it turned hard. So butter is the liquid form.
M: Right.So when you are making the cake, you make butter. Now it is different because if you are making pizza or you are making bread, it is not called butter.
C: No.If you're making pizza or bread because it is also thicker .They're called dough.
M: Dough.
C:  when still like know. Water is like liquid. We call it "butter".
M: Very good. So obviously to make butter, we add sugar , we add butter , we add egg.
and then what we want to do is we want to mix it. The other person asked "Well..What do i do? Do I have to use a whiz or electric mixer?"
C: These are tools, very important tools.You will find in most kitchen.
  A whiz is like a spoon.It is made of metal and it is empty inside.
  We use it for things like egg,milk and sugar. And It can goes very very quickly.
  It makes like "sssssshh.." .Like a whiz sound.
M: Like wire. All around it.
C: Yeah. It is wire that wrapping together. So it is very very handy tool. You only use one    hand to use it.But electric mixer, what the name said it is an electric. You plug it in and does it whiz automatically.
M: That is right.All right. So this is what we want to use.Before we put it butter into the baking pan,what we want to do first is we want to grease and flour the side of the baking pan so that you know it won't stick.
C: To grease something means to use oil or butter to make sure the meat or the dough that is not stick later.
M: That is right.So you can even use it for obviously in cooking terms , if you put butter or something like this but even grease like the black grease, may be you need to put it in your dough because may be it is making the whiz sound.
C: All right.So to grease something is add oil or add butter in order to keep something from sticking.
M: That's right. Ok. So a lot of words there now.Why don't we pass on to some phrases.  Let's start with some fluency builder.
Fluency Builder
C: Now the beginning of the dialogue, we talked about the oven.The real phrase you are going to see in cook book is preheat the oven.
M: That's right.We have the prefix there "pre". Preheat something.That means to begin or start heating.
C: Now this is because when I turn my oven on, right marco , it is not 450 degrees .
M: Umhmm.
C: It takes sometime to become hot.So we preheat the oven.We turn it on before we need it in order to make sure it is ready when we do need it.
M:That is right.So you gonna see it in every recipe if you are baking something, you need to preheat the oven .And when we are actually mixing something ,we come up  with an interesting phrase when we said. We need to sift the flour and baking powder.
C: These are both white substances and soft and they are dry. Sometimes they are bumpy.They have lumps in them.So we need to make sure that there are no lumps.
We have a special tool that will help us sift the flour and sift the baking powder.
So it is like a wire match tool. And you rotate the handle, you turn the handle and it will flatten out these flour.So there are no more bumps. It's all smooth.
M: Ok.I think I heard it also when they are talking about gold,don't they say that they will sifting for gold in the rivers.
C: That's right.When you have a tray, you shake the tray to make sure that small gold fall down but the big,the chucks stand top. That is same idea.Yeah .
M: Ok. That what we are doing here.We are sifting the flour and the baking powder.
Now We put our cake in the oven. We asked "well.. how long do we bake it for?"
We say we can leave it in there for about twenty fives minutes.
C: So the phrase here to leave it in.To keep the cake in the oven.
   This is something we can say about a lot of things.May be the turkey that we are   cooking it in the oven.It has been in oven over 4 hours.I look at it .I say "Is it ready yet? My mom said No, leave it in".
M, C:  Leave it in.yeah
C: So that means don't take it out. Keep it in the oven.Leave it in.
M: We don't really need to say leave it inside the oven or we don't need to be too specific.
We can just say leave it in.
C:  Keep it cooking.
M: Ok. Let's listen our dialogue one last time.
M: Baking a cake seems easy enough.
   Now may be some other things that we can add that we didn't mention. Like for example, vanilla extract.It mentioned in the recipe.So that is what is this ? It is like a liquid, right၊
C: It is liquid.It is flavour.So extract is used to give different food's flavour.
   You can have orange extract and vanilla extract.The vanilla are actually it comes from beans, ground beans and they take the oil from the plants that will give thing like cake with vanilla flavour. 
M: and now what about these baking pan? This is specifically for the cake.
   What if you are making something like muffin or something.It is also called baking pan?
C: have muffin tin or muffin pan.yeah. And so those are different shapes and  they are round ,circular and they are made of that tin material.So they are not very heavy.
They can go into the oven and not break.Normally we have baking sheet which is flat.
Or a baking pan which will be for cake pan or something like that.It got size on it.
M: right.
C: We have muffin tin which is for muffin.
M: and well we didn't mention it we actually have our cake but something that we always add on top of the cake or all over the cake.
C: Yeah.Not always.But most cakes ,at least most tasty cakes have frosting.
   So that is something that you add after the cake is finished cooking.
M: That's right.Frosting is like cream or something that you add around the cake.
C: It is actually sugar and water.
M: Sugar and Water, Really?
C: You can add milk if you want to make it thicker.But I make frosting, I like to make from the scratch.That means I make it by myself. I use water and powder sugar.
M: Powder sugar and then you mix it.
C: You mix it. You whiz it.
M: And then you get the frost. 
C: Exactly!.
M: Very interesting.And well...may be this is.. this recipe is actually real although we didn't give the amount of quantity.But may be you can try baking a cake.Let us know
how it goes or may be you can give us a cake recipe.
C: That's right.Our web site is hope to see you guys there.
M,C: Bye. 

Thank for this dialogue.