Wednesday, September 28, 2011

Rosh Hashanah Cards – A Sweet Year

May you be inscribed for a sweet year.

May you be inscribed for a sweet year.
There is a long standing tradition, that prior to and during the Jewish new year period, Jews send one another Rosh Hashana cards.
The general theme of the card is to wish our friends, family and neighbors a healthy and happy new year.

Though it’s not certain exactly when or where this custom started, it’s origin is most likely related to the significance of the day.
Rosh Hashana celebrates the renewal of creation. It is a time for reflection and personal accounting.
It is a time when our fate for the coming year will be decided by the heavenly court above.
Confident in our belief that the coming year will be a good one, we wish all those we meet and know a year filled with blessing.
Throughout the years different themes have been featured on Jewish New Year cards. The greeting offered and
picture depicted may vary depending on when and where the Rosh Hashanna card was published.

Most popular amongst all Rosh Hashanah messages is the blessing for a sweet year.
Typically portrayed is a picture of an apple and honey, which is traditionally eaten at this holiday season.
It is our way of asking the Creator of the Universe that the coming year be a sweet one.

Tuesday, September 20, 2011

Rain, season :)

I made a chart of words for rain, or weather that involves rain. This space is small, so write this out as 1 line on your paper:
[-----drizzle, sprinkle (=a little=)shower-----rainstorm (=some rain=) rainfall------tropical rain storm, downpour (=a lot=) sleet, cyclone, deluge, storm-----]

We now know 3 ways to use "season" :
1) To describe the times of the year: There are 2 seasons in Indonesia.
2) To describe the duration of an activity: Cricket season is long in India.
3) As a verb, to describe how to improve your food: Many of you season your rice and meat with spices and herbs such as garlic, cumin, tumeric, salt and pepper.

Wednesday, September 7, 2011


Let's start with basics, then I'll add more.

1. Put punctuation at the end of each sentence.
He had breakfast late.

Did he like the breakfast?

exclamation (Don't use too much.)
It's hot in here!

Let's talk about commas now.

1. Use a comma in a date.
September 7, 2011
December 12, 2011

2. Use a comma in a personal title
Jon Hernandez, M.D. (medical doctor)
Linda Chen, Ph.D. (doctor of philosophy)

3. Use a comma to separate a city and state/country
Phoenix, Arizona
Albany, New York
Paris, France

4. Use a comma to join two independent clauses.

Now, what's an independent clause?

An independent clause has a subject and a verb, and can be a sentence by itself.

Let's look at two independent clauses.

English can be difficult, but it can help you get a better job.

Sentence: English can be difficult.
Sentence: It can help you get a better job.

Both sentences are good by themselves.

They're also good together. When we put them together, we separate them with a comma.

English can be difficult, but it can help you get a better job.

‎5. Use a comma after an introductory phrase, prepositional phrase, or dependent clause.

Now, if an independent clause can be by itself, what's a dependent clause?

Yo Crizz and Shosho got it. A dependent clause can't be by itself. It's not a complete thought.

Because it was so hot, we decided not to play tennis.

Which is the dependent clause and which is the independent clause?

"Because it was so hot" -- dependent clause. It's not a complete thought. It can't be a sentence by itself.

"We decided not to play tennis." -- independent clause. It's a complete thought. It can be a sentence by itself.

The punctuation rule says to put a comma between the dependent and independent clause.

Because it was so hot, we decided not to play tennis.

5. Use a comma after an introductory phrase, prepositional phrase, or dependent clause.
After lunch, we'll go to the meeting.
Basically, we need to lower costs.
For example, we should bring our lunches to work.
To succeed, it's important to work hard.
Because he likes pizza, he picked up a pizza on the way home.

6. Use a comma to separate words in a series.
We like fresh tomatoes, cabbage, and carrots.
He went to the movies, the park, and the library.

Now, here's a good question. Do we need the commas after "cabbage" and "park"?

Both are correct. We often use style manuals that tell us how to punctuate. Some want the comma, and some don't.

‎7. Use a comma between adjectives that are equal.
We'd like a cheap, strong suitcase.
He's an intelligent, happy child.

8. Use a comma with "however, therefore, nonetheless, also, otherwise, finally, instead, thus, of course, above all, for example, in other words, as a result, on the other hand, in conclusion, in addition."

Jon likes to work hard, HOWEVER, he also likes to relax.
ABOVE ALL, the company wants to save money.
IN OTHER WORDS, you're leaving the company.

Last rule --

9. Quotes -- Put commas and periods inside the quotations. Use quotes for direct speech; not indirect speech.

So, what's direct speech? What's indirect speech?

Direct speech (These are the exact words Jon said as he was saying them.) Jon said, "We can't leave until we finish."

Indirect speech (This is a summary of the words John said -- someone's interpretation of his words.)
Jon said that we couldn't leave until we finished.

We use quotes with direct speech -- the exact words someone says as they're saying them. We don't use quotes with indirect speech.

Periods and commas go inside of the quotes.

Tanya said, "Don't leave until I get there."

We have a choice here.

1. Carlos Hernandez, PhD
2. Carlos Hernandez, Ph.D.

Both are correct. I usually see the first one.

Basically (introductory phrase), we like healthy foods like spinach, tomatoes, and broccoli (words in a series).

We don't need a comma after "tomatoes." Both ways are correct.